How to install MySQL Server on Debian Linux

While installing MySQL Server it is always good to keep in mind that the logs and data folders will potentially have a big size. By default MySQL keeps them in the root mount point (i.e. ‘/’). That may cause your database server system disk to get full, which is never a good idea.

This article describes how to move these two folders to ‘/home’ which is ideally mounted into another disk and has enough space to keep your database data and logs.

First, I install the required apt-get packages as follows:

apt-get update
apt-get install mysql-server

To check the status:

/etc/init.d/mysql status

/usr/bin/mysqladmin  Ver 8.41 Distrib 5.0.51a, for debian-linux-gnu on i486
Copyright (C) 2000-2006 MySQL AB
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license

Server version          5.0.51a-24
Protocol version        10
Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
UNIX socket             /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
Uptime:                 3 sec

Threads: 1  Questions: 78  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 23  Flush tables: 1
Open tables: 17  Queries per second avg: 26.000.

Now, stop MySQL, move the folders to the right location, reconfigure MySQL and start again:

# Stop MySQL
/etc/init.d/mysql stop

# Move and reconfigure data
mkdir /home/mysql
mv /var/lib/mysql /home/mysql/mysql-data
ln -s /home/mysql/mysql-data/ /var/lib/mysql

# Move and reconfigure logs
mv /var/log/mysql/ /home/mysql/mysql-logs
ln -s /home/mysql/mysql-logs/ /var/log/mysql

# Start MySQL and check that everything is OK
/etc/init.d/mysql start
/etc/init.d/mysql status
/usr/bin/mysqladmin  Ver 8.41 Distrib 5.0.51a, for debian-linux-gnu on i486
Copyright (C) 2000-2006 MySQL AB
This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license

Server version          5.0.51a-24
Protocol version        10
Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
UNIX socket             /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
Uptime:                 14 sec

Threads: 1  Questions: 78  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 23  Flush tables: 1
Open tables: 17  Queries per second avg: 5.571.

These are some settings that I usually put on the /etc/mysql/my.cnf configuration file:

# Here you can see queries with especially long duration
log_slow_queries        = /var/log/mysql/mysql-slow.log
long_query_time         = 1
log-queries-not-using-indexes

# A server-id unique
server-id                = 177
log-bin                  = /var/log/mysql/mysql-bin.log
log-bin-index            = /var/log/mysql/mysql-bin.log
innodb_file_per_table
# Unique log names (this prevents replication breaking upon hostname change 🙂
relay-log                = iamalsounique98127-relay-bin
relay-log-index          = iamalsounique98127-relay-bin

# Taking care of the auto-increment values (for multi-master replication)
auto_increment_increment      = 10
auto_increment_offset         = 1

For these changes to take effect, you would need to restart MySQL:

/etc/init.d/mysql restart

If you want to ignore databases or tables you may use the following options:

binlog_ignore_db        = information_schema
replicate_ignore_db     = information_schema
binlog_ignore_db        = mysql
replicate_ignore_db     = mysql

# Ignore all the cache* tables which have caused DUPLICATE
# ENTRY issues. Unai.
replicate_wild_ignore_table = exampledb.cache%

Having ‘binlog_ignore_db’ is enough to exclude databases from replication BUT having ‘replicate_ignore_db’ as well will make things clearer since the databases that are being ignored will appear in both the ‘SHOW SLAVE STATUSG’ and ‘SHOW MASTER STATUSG’.